1. Management Insights Into Privatisation Process of Public Enterprises in Eritrea (East Africa). Is there a ‘Privatization Trap’?
Stifanos Hailemariam, Henk von Eije, and Jos van der Werf

Enterprises in Eritrea (East Africa). Is there a ‘Privatization Trap’?
Stifanos Hailemariam, Henk von Eije, and Jos van der Werf

Abstract:
Privatization is a popular topic in many countries. However, the more a country needs development, efficiency and the proceeds of the sales, the more difficult privatization will be. This can result in a long period of privatization in developing countries. But when privatization takes a long time, the vitality of companies may reduce. In this paper we present the case of the manufacturing industries in Eritrea, where privatization has been slow. After the privatization announcement the companies deteriorated quickly with respect to operations, investments and finance. This makes it even more difficult to sell the companies and the implied vicious circle results into a ‘privatization trap’.
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2. Vegetarianism: The Social Marketing Perspective
Manisha Manish Munira Habibullah

Abstract:
The practice of vegetarianism is gathering momentum all over the world. It is emerging more as a way of life rather than just limited perspective of what is and what is not included in the food habits. While research is more than ever, helping to bring scientific information about the goodness of vegetarianism, non-vegetarianism is still a dominant practice all over the world. The deliberations presented in the paper focuses on this very aspect, ‘how to propagate the idea of vegetarianism’ to masses specially youth and children who are happily adopting non- vegetarianism as if there is no option. This paper uses the social marketing model to systematically shape the attitudes and there by change the behavior. Social marketing is the strategic use of the concepts and theories of marketing to a changed behavior. It is the belief of the writer that issues when marketed in a scientific way brings about a change. In the time when marketing of commercial products is so very advanced in using behavioral theories to their advantage, social issues should also use the very same theories to the betterment of the society.
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3.‘Fdi In Retailing’-A Future Prospect
Krishna Kumar Agarwal, Aman Gupta

Abstract:
The opportunities in Indian retail are immense, all players must be aware that the consumer culture, business practices and industry dynamics in India can differ substantially from what they are accustomed to at home, often leading to pitfalls for the unprepared. Opening up the retail sector to foreign direct investment (FDI) would be beneficial for India in terms of price and availability of products India with a population of more than one billion has become a magnet for many international industries who found their growth to be stagnating due to a saturated domestic market in their countries. With a robust economy experiencing sustained growth, India is proving to be an irresistible temptation to companies looking to expand their scope of operations. With the government showing proclivity in allowing FDI for high end and grocery retailing, the idea of permitting FDI in the Indian retail sector is slowly gaining momentum. Things had begun to look up since the late 1990s, with a boom in the consumer durable industry, and improved services. With rising income and changes in life style, demand for better products became insistent. Foreign direct investment (FDI) inflows into the country have more than trebled in the first six months of calendar year 2007 to $11.4 billion as compared to inflows of $3.6 billion received in same period last year, registering a growth of 218 per cent. India offers vast potential in retail business and this potential must be fully realized by exploited, by making the country an attractive destination for FDI. The study suggests the measure & techniques to overcome the legal restraints.
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4.Rural Consumers Expectation and Buying Behaviour of Consumer Durables
HC Purohit
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Abstract:
In any business development activity there is an essential need to understand and have an appreciation of the buyers. Where the business-to-business market is unique is that the buyer and specifiers of today are highly trained individuals. They are technically and commercially astute and have a great deal of knowledge of the product in question and the various supplier of that product/commodity. The buying role has become much more dynamic and so often the buyers increase in professionalism, skill and ability is not being matched by the marketer. In today’s environment the emphasis is on the buyers controlling cost rather than merely negotiation price. The strategy and structure are such that the buyer aims to work in partnership, to secure the best deal from the suppliers and ensure some form of cost stability and cost reduction. Increasing the estimation of the purchasing function is rising. The buying role has become much more dynamic and to often the buyers increase in professionalism, skill and the ability is not matched by the marketer. As the potentiality of the rural market is recognized by the most of the leading corporate houses and they are targeting to capture/utilize the most potential market of the country. Before going to launch any product in the rural area the marketer must understand the psychology, social, economical and cultural determinants of rural buyers. The proposed study will focuses on the buyer’s role in the market, buyer’s functions, priority, expectation, awareness and knowledge in case of rural buyers with consumer durables.
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5.E-Commerce Laws In The Indian Perspective
Sumanjeet

Abstract:
Electronic commerce offers exceptional opportunities for the economic development of India, with its huge pool of technology skilled, English speaking manpower. However the growth of e-commerce will depend on the concomitant advancement of a consistent legal and regulatory framework able to cope with ensuring rights and obligations in a virtual environment. A number of developing countries have pursued policies to formulate consistent legal and regulatory framework to support electronic transactions across state, national and international borders. Besides developing the e-infrastructure in the country through effective Telecom Policy measures, the Indian Government is taking appropriate steps as confidence building measures for the growth of e-commerce. It has created the necessary legal and administrative framework through the enactment of Information Technology Act 2000, which combines the e-commerce transactions and computer misuse and frauds rolled into an Omnibus Act.Download Full Paper

6.Advance Architecture of Business Intelligence for Collaborative Competitive Environment : An IT Perspective
Sunil Kr.Pandey , R.B.Mishra

Abstract:
There is a need for a new architecture that serves the needs of the enterprise in the 21st century – an updated architecture that provides a foundation for business intelligence (BI) , customer data integration, predictive analytics, master data management and more. There are many other aspects of this architecture that are intriguing as well, such as the support of online transaction processing, the linkage of structured and unstructured data and selection/deselection of certain unstructured data as part of the infrastructure. The best infrastructure in the world will not deliver the desired results from an operational business intelligence application unless the very best planning and management of the project are in place and are practiced. Business intelligence will always have a key role to play in serving as a platform for decision making as we have to choose between several courses of action. Only if there is a rigorous and methodical analysis of the facts we have at hand, will we purposefully move in the right direction. And, illicit trade makes it very clear that, at the very least, we have to try. When implementing business intelligence, cultural considerations may equal technical considerations in importance. This research covers the rigorous study of practical implementation of Business Intelligence in the enterprise. It provides a novel framework for BI which can be beneficial in ideal conditions.
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7.Different Dimensions of a Brand
Pallavi, A.K Mishra

Abstract:
Since earliest times producers have used their brands to distinguish their products. Modern branding and acquiring of individual brand names has its origin in the nineteenth century. In recent years brands have become very popular and familiar to the consumers. Brands are very important for the survival and success of a company. A brand must necessarily deliver value and the value must be defined in consumer terms. According to David Ogilvy, ‘Brands are a part of the fabric of life’. A brand has an existence that is greater than an actual product or service. A brand has a life of its own and feeds not only on the original product, but can also carry forward its values and identity into new product areas. According to Stephen King, ‘A product is something that is made in a factory; a brand is something that is bought by a consumer’ (1990.) Thus, a brand is a holistic combination of product and added values. Brand can be defined as a means of creating an identity for a product. It is the sum total of the particular satisfaction which it gives to the consumers who buy that specific brand. This sum total encompasses the name, ingredients, price, packaging, distribution, reputation and ultimately its performance. In fact today’s modern brand has outgrown from the mechanical aspects of product differentiation and has acquired a personality of its own. For example, brand Coca-cola.
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8.Capital Account Convertibility: Issues and implications
Ravindra Tripathi, Manoj Kumar

Abstract:
Hon’ble Prime Minister Manmohan Singh, a great economist, when called for a renowned push towards making the rupee convertible on capital account, there were wide spread protests. Capital Account Convertibility (CAC) has not been on the political agenda since 1997, when a committee headed by former Deputy Governor S.S. Tarapore set out a road map towards full CAC by 2000. The East Asian crisis intervened, and the plan was shelved for the time being. Tarapore heads a new committee to look into another CAC roadmap in the month of March of this year. The committee report was made public by the Reserve Bank of India on September 1, 2006. However, since the last one, India has opened up its capital substantially. Through this research paper, we are trying to analyse the various issues towards CAC and its effect in the Indian economy with fair suggestions.

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9.Benchmarking: A Strategy for Marking the Business
Mukesh Chauhan, Shivani Gupta

Abstract:
A best practice is a business function, process, or system that is considered superior to all other known methods. Successfully identifying and applying best practices can save money, eliminate redundancy, and enhance organizational effectiveness. A benchmark is a standard of performance. It allows organizations to discover where they stand in relation to others. By identifying, understanding, comparing, and adapting one’s own organization with the outstanding practices and processes of others, an organization can target problem areas, best levels of performance, and solutions to improve results. Benchmarking is an improvement tool whereby a company measures its performance or process against other companies’ best practices. The kind of benchmarking you should undertake is dependent on one’s company’s characteristics and circumstances. Benchmarking has to be seen to be integral to the business strategy and not just an add-on. It should be based on some kind of critical need. And benchmarking should be a continuous process in one’s organisation. This article is an attempt to highlight that how a benchmarking can be a strategy for marking the business.

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10.Touch and Trial: Exploring a merchandising Relevance Beyond Repertoire
Pinak Nath Jha, Pushkar Jha

Abstract:
Even with the glorious dawn of a large pool of ingenious as well as hybridized postulations to the arena of behavioural sciences, it has not been possible to completely do away with the so called quandary existing in the area of Consumer Behaviour vis-à-vis marketing programmes. Because of the domain operating at a highly complicated level of cognitive sophistication and the relevant guiding tenets also start maintaining a kind of academic silence beyond a certain point, it becomes imperative to revisit even an established philosophy in order to suitably address certain contemporary queries. The paper attempts to explore an esoteric and unheeded question of the chemistry of touch and trial dyad with a view to come out with some pragmatic merchandising implications of the prominent stage of trial in the consumer adoption mechanism for further intellectual and managerial interpolation.
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11.Effectiveness of Garbage Collector in .Net Framework
Nripendra Dwivedi, Ajay Tripathi

Abstract:
Garbage collection in the Microsoft .NET common language runtime environment completely absolves the developer from tracking memory usage and knowing when to free memory. However, it is necessary to understand how it works. This article on .NET garbage collection explains how resources are allocated and managed and gives a detailed step-by-step description of how the garbage collection algorithm works. Also discuss the way resources can clean up properly when the garbage collector decides to free a resource’s memory and how to force an object to clean up when it is freed.

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