1. Women Empowerment and Entrepreneurship: Some Issues
Prabal K Sen,Professor-Economics Area & Chairperson, Entrepreneurship Development Centre (EDC),
XLRI Xavier School of Management, Jamshedpur: India


The paper begins with a broad assessment of the current status of empowerment of women across the world with particular reference to India, discusses the meaning, forms and levels of empowerment and points to the significance of gender equality as a stepping stone toward women empowerment. While attempting to examine the role of entrepreneurship in acting as a means to empowerment, the paper refers to the three contrasting paradigms in this context. First of these three paradigms underlined in the paper is the concept of financial self-sustainability based on the neo-liberal philosophy of market growth aimed at economic empowerment via expansion of individual choices and capacities for self reliance, the second is the concept based on interventionist poverty alleviation and community development approach relying on group formation by women etc., and the third approach is based on a structuralist, socialist and feminist critique of capitalism (Mayoux 2000, Johnson 1997), which views entrepreneurship as a point of entry for women’s socio-economic empowerment, entailing transformation of power relations throughout society. The paper then indicates how social structures and norms, by defining and constraining the space for women to exercise freedom in various aspects of life, pose obstacles on the way to empowerment.. The paper concludes that while entrepreneurship can play a significant role in achieving the goal of empowerment of women, one needs to address the issues arising out of constraining social norms and market forces etc., so as to be able to achieve this avowed goal.

Keywords: Empowerment, Entrepreneurship, Gender equality, Opportunity, Outcome, Rights-based approach, Social norms.

2. Bridging the Skill Gap in India: Challenges and Solutions
Amit Iqbal Srivastava, Director,Anuna Education Networks,Aamir Hasan, Faculty,Anuna Education Networks


The globalised world demands vocational skilled manpower to convert growth opportunities into jobs and stable incomes. With millions of new job-seekers entering the job market every year, vocational skill development has become one of India’s urgent priorities. Skill development is key for fostering Make in India initiative of government of India and entrepreneurship development in India to reap the potential demographic dividend of India over the next few years. The present paper attempts to study the present skill capacity, need of skill development in India, review the skill development policies, challenges for Skill development along with their solutions. The paper studied the relationship between education, employment and Skill development. The study also found that both the Government and its partner agencies have undertaken various measures/initiatives for the effective implementation of the Skill development system in the country, but there are big challenges which needs quick resolution.

A survey (random survey) method was employed to elicit primary information from 100 students who took STAR training from different NSDC partners in Lucknow. The findings seek to answer some basic questions. Are the youths being really mobilized to be skilled outside the formal education system? Is the training delivery mechanism good enough to make the students employable? Would the industries be willing to cut down the minimum qualification criteria to promote skill development .A questionnaire based on as random sampling, was employed for data collection. Data analysis was accomplished using simple weighted average and percentage method.

Keywords:NSDC,Skill Development, Vocational skill,NSQF

3.Beyond Profits : FabIndia Entrepreneurial Model of Capitalism
Dr Ritu Talwar, Professor, New Delhi Institute of Management


Fabindia is India’s largest private platform for products that are made from traditional techniques, skills and hand-based processes.Fabindia links over 55,000 craft based rural producers to modern urban markets, thereby creating a base for skilled, sustainable rural employment, and preserving India’s traditional handicrafts in the process.Fabindia promotes inclusive capitalism, through its unique COC (community owned companies) model. The COC model consists of companies, which act as value adding intermediaries, between rural producers and Fabindia. These are owned, as the name suggests, by the communities they operate from; a minimum 26% shareholding of these companies is that of craft persons.Fabindia’s products are natural, craft based, contemporary, and affordable. Fab India business models is based on cooperative attitude towards its suppliers(artisans) and healthy HR practices. It has established its own social standard in India and abroad. Fabindia clearly shows that its success as a major player in the retail handloom sector in India is due to the fact that the company has always believed in “good business practices and never compromised on best quality”.This revolutionary organization is said to be the next big thing in societal betterment .FabIndia believes that a delighted customer is their best Brand ambassador .Their USP in marketing lies in quality of fabric and cultivated image of Indianans. They heavily rely on word of mouth marketing. They say 83% of customers go satisfied and 59% go highly satisfied. Fabindia which, over more than 50 years, has refined the art of sourcing from craftsmen: middlemen are a strict no-no and artisans receive a share of the profits.Artisans form the backbone of India’s rural economy, and the handicraft industry is the second-largest employment generator in villages after agriculture. While official estimates put the number of artisans in the country at about 70 lakh, unofficial numbers peg it closer to two crore.

Key words : Community, COC , retail ,artisans

4.Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) – a comparative study amongst public and private sector employees with    reference to Bhopal city
Bhuvanesh Kumar Sharma, Assistant Professor, Oriental College of Management, Bhopal


Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) characterizes as the responsibility of organizations to partners’ lawful, moral, social and ecological desires. CSR has for the most part been a down to business reaction to buyer and common society weights. These have primarily been centered on trans-national enterprises (TNCs) serving markets in the North, yet frequently working in nations in the South. Allegations by governments and common society of ecological contamination, human rights ill-uses and abuse of work in supply chains, have forced organizations to end up all the more ecologically and socially capable. This research paper focus on the CSR practices of leading Indian companies, it also finds out the awareness and expectations of Government and Private sector employees from the CSR practices. Hypothesis has been formulated to identify the awareness public and private sector employees towards CSR practices and preference for various CSR practices. Primary data has been collected by making a survey on the awareness and expectation from CSR, secondary data has also been used from various sources on the CSR practices of some leading corporate. The study reveals that there is no significance difference between public and private sector on awareness level of CSR, this study also conclude that there is no significance difference between public and private sector on addressing various CSR issues

Keywords: CSR & programs, corporate social performance, people satisfaction.

5.An Assessment of Entrepreneurial Intention among Youth: A Case Study of Varanasi
Saurabh Gupta, Senior Research Fellow, Faculty of Management studies, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi,Dr. Anurag Singh, Assistant Professor, Faculty of Management studies, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi-


Entrepreneurship has emerged as a highly vibrant and dynamic career option of global citizens in past few decades. Entrepreneurship is an engine, which is not only helpful in having the financial independence of an individual but also contributes to country’s economic developmentthrough job creation, revenue generation and regional development.Despite the high enthusiasm of the sector, Entrepreneurship in India is not able to accelerate its growth as it has shown the results in few other developing economies like China and Brazil. Literature says that there are many factors, due to which this sector is unable to show remarkable growth. Psychological concern, i.e., ‘intention to adopt Entrepreneurship as the career option’ is one of the major factors among them.
Varanasi is industrially backward, but educationally rich region of eastern Uttar Pradesh. Four universities along with several degree and professional colleges in the city are present to deliver the learning platform of entrepreneurial skills through scholastic courses. Even after the splendid approach of educational institutions the start-up number is very less in comparison to other cities of Uttar Pradesh. The studies on entrepreneurship, conducted in this region falls short in explaining the appropriate reasons behind the sluggish entrepreneurial growth and low entrepreneurial intention.
Considering the background of the studies steered earlier, this study tries to assess the Entrepreneurial Intention among the Youth of Varanasi.It is an empirical study based on primary data. The data has been collected from the Varanasi city.This study reveals that Varanasi youth’s intention to become entrepreneurs is influenced by, income class of the family, and family’s business background. The study confirmed that gender makes a difference in entrepreneurial intention but education is not a prime factor in deciding entrepreneurial intention of Varanasi youth. Further the policy implications based on research findings is presented in the study followed by the conclusion.

Keywords: Entrepreneurship, Entrepreneurial intention, Youth, Varanasi, ANOVA.

6. E-Retailing in India: For Sustainable Entrepreneurship Development
Ms. Ruby ,Assistant Professor, Department of Commerce & Management, S.D.P College for Women, Ludhiana



With rapid growth of the Internet and Globalization of market, the Retail sector has become an increasingly competitive & dynamic business environment. Business & Marketing activities are affected by the invent of internet technologies & it has revolutionized Commerce, Retailing, Shopping & Advertising activities of product & service. The formalization and growth of E-Retailing will play a pivotal role in bringing sustainability and economic viability to many facets of the economy. This research paper is an attempt to evaluate and highlight the potential E-Retailing holds and the role it can play in context of emerging Indian consumers and economy. The author has also tried to explore the issues & challenges in the path of E-Retailing & the future perspective of E-Retailing in India.

Keywords: Economic Development, Economy, Employment, Infrastructure, Internet

7.Creative And Innovative HR Practices By The Microfinance Entrepreneurs
Mamta Kumar, Assistant Professor, Goel Institute of Technology and Management, Lucknow,Saumya Singh, Associate Professor, Department of Management Studies, Indian School of Mines, Dhanbad


Microfinance institutions (MFI) are making their presence, strongly felt in providing financial assistance to the poor. Similar to the organizational structure in any financial institution, microfinance institutions also have a set of employees at different levels such as managers, agents and clients, which in this case are poor people who need loan and support. Therefore, it is important that the standard practices followed in established institutions are followed in MFIs. In this research, we study the existing HR practices in MFIs and suggest the innovative and better model that can improve the functioning of MFIs. A semi-structured questionnaire, concerning the current and expected ideal HR practices is used to collect responses over a period of time from 190 participants, including 30 HR managers, 60 employees and 100 clients of different MFIs in Uttar Pradesh and Bihar. The responses were used to study the practices followed by the MFIs regarding recruitment, training, motivation, employee attrition were studied. The analysis showed that human resource practices need to inculcate value chain support, innovative training and education for clients and employees, and tracking poverty exodus by means of poverty index. We also make some recommendations about the human resource management practices for both employees, managers and clients that can contribute towards establishing successful micro enterprises, thereby improving the functioning of MFIs and helping its clients.

8.Impact Investing: Evolution and Recent Trends in India
Dr. Tribhuvan Pratap Singh, Associate Professor, GD Goenka World Institute – Lancaster University, India,Dr. Manish Srivastava, Professor , Kaziranga University, Kaziranga, India


Impact investing is one form of socially responsible investing (SRI) that directs various investment strategies. Many stakeholders are getting involved these days, in impactful ways, trying to assist needy people, sectors and countries. Governments implement social programs, multi-lateral aid agencies and NGOs provide direct services and advocate for policy changes, and individuals volunteer their time, talent and resources to indicate their concern for society. Today trillions of dollars are spent globally on such programs. On the other hand, the private sector also plays an increasingly important role as corporations adopt sustainable practices into their business decisions and seek broader, double and triple bottom line objectives.

While Corporate Social Responsibility has gained importance in all sectors in the last few years, SRI and Impact Investing have particularly gained importance in the financial sector. The ascent of SRI is expressed by an increasing number of SRI or sustainability funds and indices, and ultimately by the increasing amount of financial resources invested in socially responsible ways. SRI is already a booming market in both Europe and the United States. In particular, it has become an important principle guiding the investment strategies of various funds and accounts leading towards a sharp rise in the total assets under management by SRI principles with focus on SRI requirements.

In Asia, the field of impact investing is less mature than in Europe or the United States. Much of the social enterprise funding activity occurs as small direct investments, often through family and friends. Despite this late start, experts predict the region has strong potential to grow.

For the first time anywhere in the world, large listed companies in India are now mandated by the 2013 Companies Act to apply 2% of average net profits to corporate social responsibility schemes. In the same context, this paper describes Impact Investing and portraits the evolution, major trends and its applications in India and Asia.

Keywords: Impact Investing, Socially Responsible Investing, Investing Decision, Sustainable Investing, Impact Investing and Socially Responsible Investing in India and Asia.

9.Manipuri Women Entrepreneurs: A Case Study Of Meira, Packaged Food
Nongmeikapam Jinalee, M.Phil Scholar Department of Management, Mizoram University, Aizawl,Dr Amit Kumar Singh, Assistant Professor Department of Management, Mizoram University, Aizawl


Today society is recognizing women empowerment through entrepreneurial skills of women and creation of various types of enterprise by them. A strong desire to do positive things is an inbuilt quality of Manipuri entrepreneurial women, who is capable of contributing values in family as well as social life. Manipur is one of the hilly states of Northeast India. It is gifted with rich resources and yet many of the resources need to be explored. Even women of Manipur are also a resource of the state, yet their skills and entrepreneurial aspects are not fully recognized, but still they are one of the emerging sources of income and job provider of the local women. This present paper is an effort to bring out the contributions made by the women of Manipur to their society and highlight the struggles and the problems faced by them. Relevant Literature had been reviewed specially focusing on “Meira”.

KEYWORDS: Manipur, Resource, Women entrepreneurs, Contributions, Meira

10. Milking A Cow Without Her Calf: An Innovative Solution For Rural Entrepreneurship
Dr. Rajesh Kumar, Scientist, Central Institute of Mining and Fuel Research, Digwadih Campus, Dhanbad


Milk in a cow starts only after birth of her calf to feed the calf. Calf is fully dependent on her mother’s milk. But, if it happens that during the child birth process, the calf dies and a dead baby is produced, what will happen to mother cow? Whether the cow will give milk or not? If we have to take milk from cow, what strategy, planning, methods is to be adopted. This is a challenge before the milkman. How this challenge was handled by the master of cow (milkman) and how he could be able to take the milk from the cow. This challenge is discussed in this paper.

11.Spiritual HR Practices And Organizational Effectiveness For Hospitality Industry Entrepreneurs – A Case of Oberoi       Hotels


The purpose of this paper is to review and explore how spirituality enhances employees’ performances and organizational effectiveness.

The Oberoi Group, India’s leading chain of 5 star and luxury hotels and resorts, has been ranked 13th among India’s Top 100 Companies to Work for and year 2nd in the Hospitality Industry for the 2013 according to the “India’s Best Companies To Work For” .

Global Investments in hospitality Sector has shown an increasing trends over last few years. Asia is Viewed as Top Global Prospect for Hospitality Investment. According to the latest Tourism Satellite Accounting (TSA) research, released by the World Travel and Tourism Council (WTTC), the demand for travel and tourism in India is expected to grow by 8.2 % by 2019. As a result, the hotel business is going through major changes in the country, which with the entry of many international chains has led to a severe competitive era.

The challenging factor in the hotel industry is to engage a diverse group of employees through specific initiatives and participative efforts constantly . The Oberoi Group has based its HR practices on its core values of spirituality, which it refers to as its Dharma. This article will revolve around the Dharma-based people practices that the Oberoi Group uses to nurture and retain its talented workforce. The core values which were translated by the founding chairman are applied to all aspects of the Group’s business. These practices act as guide for every decision taken by the organization . These core values in all hotels in every locations are the pillars of guidance .It has established its own customer satisfaction standard in India and abroad.

Key words :Dharma ,spiritual development, customer satisfaction, HR practices

12.Opportunity For Women Entrepreneurs To Encash Virtual World Through Web Based Advertising (WBA)
Dr. Bhagwan Singh, Head of Department, Department of Marketing & Supply Chain Management [M&SCM],Chairman, Management Research Circle, SBMS, CUHP School of Business & Management Studies [SBMS],Central University of Himachal Pradesh [CUHP] Dharamshala, H. P.


In India, there is no shortage of talented female social entrepreneurs. Women like Ela Bhatt, who in 1972 founded SEWA, the world’s first and largest trade union for undocumented women workers. Hina Shah, [8] founder of The International Centre for Entrepreneurship and Career Development (ICECD), has worked for over 25 years on scaling micro, small, and medium size businesses across 21 states of India. Jeroo Billmoria, founder of Childline India and Ashoka fellow since 1998, has become the case study example of social entrepreneurship around the world. Akanksha Foundation founder and Teach for India CEO Shaheen Mistri is leading her country through arguably the most complex and challenging learning ecosystems in the world.[8] Padmaja Reddy and Chetna Gala Sinha have founded two of the major microfinance organizations of India. Spandana and Mann Vikas Samajik Sanstha, while Neera Nundy, cofounder of Dasra, and Aparajita Agarwal and Manju Reddy, cofounders of Intellecap, build and grow the social enterprise sector through impact consulting. [8]
Women have captured the business market today and the basic reason for women adopting the entrepreneurship as a profession is need for self determination, expectation for recognition career goal, self satisfaction and best usage of leisure hours. Also the internet is helping the entrepreneurs with their home business. Even the Google search engine is taking active steps in launching programs to help women entrepreneurs. Further the data analysis shows the results are satisfactory at 0.05 % level of significance. The objectives of study are found to be true i.e. women use internet and are aware of WBA. This awareness helps them to implement this Web based advertising as a tool to develop/lead their enterprise.

Keywords: Web Based Advertising (WBA), Women, Entrepreneurship, Internet

13. Jharcraft as a promoter of Entrepreneurship: An Exploration
Pushp Rajan , Research Scholar, Indian School of Mines, Dhanbad.Dr. Mrinalini Pandey, Assistant Professor Indian School of Mines, Dhanbad


This research depicts the different policies, schemes and strategies adopted by Jharkhand silk textile and handicraft development corporation limited(Jharcraft) to promote entrepreneurship in the field of Jharkhand’s handicraft and handloom. For this exploratory research has been carried out which is based on secondary data source for determining different policies, schemes and strategies in practice. To study the impact of the Jharcraft’s policies and schemes, interview of the Jharcraft officials has been conducted to develop the frame work of Jharcraft entrepreneurship development policies and its effect on economic development. There are three main Jharcraft policies that help in entrepreneurship development; these are the proper implementation of Jharkhand government policies to promote handicraft and handloom, to provide all types of assistance and Buy back. Above three policies helps entrepreneur in enhancing creativity, motivating and helps them in marketing of product and these lead to whole economic development of society.

Keywords: Handloom, Handicraft, Entrepreneur, Entrepreneurship, Jharcraft.

14.Developing Social Entrepreneurial Culture for Enhancing Rural Empowerment through Agribusiness in India
Amarendra Pratap Singh


Agriculture is main source of livelihood for majority of people in rural India. It accounts for nearly 23 percent of the country GDP but supports more than 66 percent of the country’s population. Rural areas suffer from severe unemployment and chronic poverty. The agricultural growth in the country has been quite low and fluctuating. The growth in this sector substantially affects the growth of overall economy. In general, farmers are poor and lack purchasing power. The economic reform process and advent of WTO has opened opportunities for value addition in agriculture but most of the farmers still follow traditional farming practices due to lack of entrepreneurial ability to realize the potential of emerging agribusiness opportunities. The government has taken several initiatives to empower rural people through decentralized governance but political empowerment alone will not be sufficient unless the rural masses can get economic empowerment. Hence, promotion of agribusiness as value addition in agricultural products through development of micro-enterprises can help in increasing rural employment opportunities and income to bring rural empowerment in real sense.

Key Words: Value addition, Agribusiness, Entrepreneurial Ability, Micro-enterprises

15. The Global Trend and challenges to promote entrepreneurship
Prof.(Dr.)Rashmi Gujrati, Indus International University


Globalization of markets and production has produced many opportunities and new threats for businesses hitherto accustomed to dominating their domestic markets. Entrepreneurship has been growing rapidly in the past 20 years. It was strengthen by the increasing number of young generation who choose to be an entrepreneur instead of working on other people or companies. Mostly, they do not consider entrepreneurship as the only option to earn income and generate money, but more than that entrepreneurship is also regarded as one of the way to uphold their values such as beneficial to society, freedom to manage time and finances, and freedom to define and execute what they want.
The role of Entrepreneurship in economic growth, are about job and wealth creation. Considering the role, it is important to develop entrepreneurship Entrepreneurship contributes to economic development in all countries all over the world and has always been a powerful driving force of innovation, productivity, job creation and economic growth. In recent years, One major challenge is to develop contents and methods that encourage entrepreneurial learning.
The paper confirms that entrepreneurship education can help promote an entrepreneurial and innovate culture by changing mindsets and providing the necessary skills. In this way, universities have become Increasingly important for national and global economic development.

Keywords: Globalization , Entrepreneurship education ,Promote, Conceptual Framework. economic development

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